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Gallup Vault

As the U.S. Constitution turns 230, the Gallup Vault reviews what Americans thought of the historical document at its bicentennial in 1987.

Americans opposed a pardon for Richard Nixon in 1974, but a decade later they said President Gerald Ford had done the right thing in granting it.

Days after Princess Diana's death in 1997, 50% of Britons and 27% of Americans were as upset as if someone they knew personally had died.

In 1957, two in three Americans were collecting S&H, Gold Bond or other brands of trading stamps earned by shopping at participating retailers.

Despite facing stiffer resistance from North Korea than expected at the start of the Korean War, Americans rejected using the atom bomb in August 1950.

Fifty years ago this summer, Gallup asked Americans how concerned they were about racial strife.

In 1947, as the Iron Curtain was descending on Europe, Gallup found most Americans suspicious of Russia's military and cultural intentions.

In 1993, Americans had a mixed response to easing restrictions on gays serving in the military, and both sides felt strongly about their view.

After mostly disapproving of married women working when not financially necessary in 1936, Americans gave slim majority approval to this in 1969.

In 1939, Gallup conducted simultaneous polls in the U.S. and France on each nation's favorite foreign countries and statesmen. The U.S. led in France, as did FDR.

Ronald Reagan's 1985 visit to a German WWII military cemetery sparked a political firestorm in the U.S.

One of Gallup's earliest polls, from 1939, addressed the evolving cultural norms around men and women revealing their skin in summer clothing.

The U.S. Supreme Court ruled 50 years ago that state laws against interracial marriage were unconstitutional. But as that case was wending its way through the courts, less than half of Americans agreed.

The United States' decision to direct Voice of America broadcasts to Russia at the start of the Cold War met with considerable skepticism among Americans who doubted these would be effective, or even reach their target.

In 1939, Gallup found expansive public support for nine of 10 proposals, then described as "drastic," aimed at reducing car accidents.

Despite reservations about some specific spending cuts, the majority of Americans in 1981 endorsed Ronald Reagan's budget cutting plans and approved of his handling of the economy as he sought to remake the federal budget.

In 1954, most Americans thought that if J. Edgar Hoover were to say that the FBI had most of the American communists under its eye, they would feel pretty sure it was true.

Saturday marks 25 years since the Rodney King riots in Los Angeles. Americans at the time faulted both the riots and the verdict that sparked them.

Long before Amazon made shopping at big-box stores and malls seem old fashioned, "chain stores" were the disruptive force in American commerce.

Eight in 10 Americans said in 1999 that Columbine was not an isolated incident, but rather a sign that something was "seriously wrong" in the U.S.