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A median of 43% of adults in Asia approved of Germany's leadership in 2021, closely followed by 41% who approved of U.S. leadership.
Before Russia invaded Ukraine this year, global approval of Russia's leadership stood at 33% in 2021.
Africans' support for Russia was mixed in the lead-up to Russia's invasion of Ukraine.
U.S. President Joe Biden ended his first year in office with a 45% median approval rating and a 33% disapproval rating across 116 countries.
Americans are strongly supportive of Ukraine and overwhelmingly favor economic sanctions against Russia.
Americans view Canada, Great Britain, France and Japan the best of 19 countries asked about -- and North Korea, Afghanistan, Iran, Russia and Iraq the worst.
Russia and Ukraine are major grain exporters, and the war between them will likely result in interruptions of supplies and increased food prices. For many countries around the globe, this may result in increased political instability.
More than 500,000 refugees have fled Ukraine since Thursday, many of them crossing into Poland, Moldova and Romania. Of Ukraine's western neighbors, these three countries were the most welcoming of migrants in 2019.
Fifty-two percent of Americans see the Russia-Ukraine conflict as a vital threat to U.S. interests, while U.S. sympathies lay largely with Ukraine. A record 85% view Russia unfavorably, while 62% view Ukraine positively.
The Russian government has demanded the withdrawal of NATO forces and equipment from alliance members in Eastern Europe. Before this, attitudes toward Russia had already soured following the country's annexation of Crimea.
Russia hit a record COVID-19 death toll on Wednesday. Before the surge, 75% of unvaccinated Russians said they would not take the vaccine.
When Winston Churchill delivered his famous "Iron Curtain" speech 75 years ago, Americans were reluctant to form a military alliance with the U.K. and were unsure of how to respond to Russia's postwar moves.
Americans' favorable ratings of China and Russia have reached new lows in 2021.